中国的: Chinese

关于哮喘的护士交谈 / Speak to a nurse about asthma

Asthma UK 咨询热线的护士们能用150多种语言与您进行沟通。

如果您想用中文向护士讲述您的哮喘状况,请拨打我们的咨询热线:0800 121 62 44。电话拨通后,请用英语说"Mandarin"。稍等一会,您的电话就会转接到电话翻译服务,这样您就能通过口译员与哮喘病专业护士继续你们的对话。

Asthma UK电话咨询热线服务开通的时间是每周一至周五上午9点至下午5点。可免费通过BT座机拨打。若通过其它公司的座机和移动电话拨打,则收费各不相同。

如果您有高于哮喘病的任何担忧,请给我们致电。无论事情大小,我们都欢迎您来电咨询。

Listen to the above in Chinese / English:


下载一份我们中国常见问题/ Download a copy of our FAQs

哮喘是什麼疾病? What is asthma?

.

哮喘是什麼疾病?

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哮喘是一種影響呼吸道的疾病,呼吸道是呼吸時進入肺臟及從肺臟吐出的空氣所經過的管道。當哮喘病患者與一種引起氣喘發作的激發物接觸,呼吸道內壁肌肉收縮,呼吸道因而變窄。呼吸道的粘膜充血而腫脹,通常這會產生粘液或痰。所有這些反應導致呼吸道變窄和受刺激 – 從而觸發哮喘的症狀。

常見的哮喘症狀包括:

  • 咳嗽
  • 喘息或胸部發出呼哧呼哧的聲音
  • 呼吸短促
  • 胸悶.

Q.

What is asthma?

A.

Asthma is a condition that affects the airways – the small tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs. When a person with asthma comes into contact with an asthma trigger, the muscles around the walls of the airways tighten and the airways become narrower. The lining of the airways becomes red and swollen and often sticky mucus or phlegm is produced. All these reactions cause the airways to become narrower and irritated – leading to the symptoms of asthma.

The common symptoms of asthma are:

  • coughing
  • wheezing or a whistling noise in the chest
  • shortness of breath
  • tightness in the chest.
哮喘是怎麼引起來的? What causes asthma?

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哮喘是怎麼引起來的?

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哮喘可在任何年齡開始。引起哮喘的真正原因未明,但至今我們知道:

  • 如果你的父親或母親患哮喘,你患哮喘的可能性更高
  • 現代生活方式的許多方面 – 例如房屋和飲食的改變以及更衛生的環境 – 都可能增加哮喘的病例
  • 在懷孕期抽煙可能增加孩子患哮喘的可能性
  • 處於煙霧環境增加患哮喘的可能性
  • 在工作場所的激發物,例如灰塵和化學品,可能令人得了哮喘
  • 環境污染可能使哮喘症狀更嚴重.

Q.

What causes asthma?

A.

Asthma can start at any age. It is difficult to know what causes asthma, but so far we know that:

  • if one or both of your parents have asthma you are more likely to have it
  • many aspects of modern lifestyles – such as changes in housing and diet and a more hygienic environment – may have added to the rise in asthma
  • smoking during pregnancy increases the chance of a child developing asthma
  • being exposed to cigarette smoke increases the chance of developing asthma
  • irritants in the workplace such as dust and chemicals may lead to a person developing asthma
  • environmental pollution can make asthma symptoms worse.
什麼事物能夠引發哮喘症狀? What are the things that can set off (or trigger) asthma symptoms?

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什麼事物能夠引發哮喘症狀?

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激發物是令呼吸道受刺激而引發哮喘的症狀。每個人有不同的哮喘,你可能有多於一種的激發物。常見的的激發物包括傷風或感冒、煙草煙霧、運動以及對諸如花粉、有毛髮或羽毛的動物或室塵蟎的過敏。

Q.

What are the things that can set off (or trigger) asthma symptoms?

A.

A trigger is anything that irritates the airways and causes the symptoms of asthma. Everyone's asthma is different and you will probably have more than one trigger. Common triggers include colds or flu, tobacco smoke, exercise and allergies to things like pollen, furry or feathery animals or house-dust mites.

哮喘對我的生活方式有怎樣影響?How might asthma affect my lifestyle?

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哮喘對我的生活方式有怎樣影響?

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一些人可能因哮喘症狀日益嚴重而需要改變其部分生活方式。引發你的哮喘的真正原因可能難以確定。有時這種關連很明顯,例如當你與貓或花粉接觸片刻便出現這些症狀。不過有些人對哮喘激發物則有遲緩反應。透過避免與會令你的症狀變為嚴重的激發物接觸,以及適當地使用哮喘藥物,你能夠減少你的症狀,繼續享受你慣常的生活方式。

Q.

How might asthma affect my lifestyle?

A.

Some people may have to change parts of their lifestyle because of worsening asthma symptoms. It can be difficult to identify exactly what triggers your asthma. Sometimes the link is very clear, for example when your symptoms start within minutes of coming into contact with a cat or pollen. However some people have a delayed reaction to an asthma trigger. By avoiding the triggers that make your asthma symptoms worse, and by taking your asthma medicines correctly, you can reduce your symptoms and continue to enjoy your usual lifestyle.

怎樣醫治哮喘呢? How is asthma treated?

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怎樣醫治哮喘呢?

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有一些極有收效的醫治方法,幫助你控制哮喘。醫治哮喘最收效方法是吸入藥物,讓藥物直接進入你的肺臟。當前有多種不同的吸入器,重要的是你應使用你感到最舒適和能夠適當使用的一種。你的醫生或護士會告訴你哪一種對你最適合,並給你示範正確的使用方法。

哮喘藥物主要分為兩類,這兩類同樣重要,但作用不同。這兩類是減輕和防止哮喘藥物:

  • 減輕症狀吸入器通常是藍色,當症狀出現時候(例如喘息或咳嗽)使用。此類藥物舒緩包圍狹窄呼吸道的肌肉,使呼吸更容易。減輕症狀吸入器是醫治哮喘發作的必需藥物。如果你每周需要使用減輕症狀吸入器三四次,應約見你的醫生或護士要求他們再給你檢查,使能夠控制哮喘。如果你在一段長時間需要使用很多減輕吸入器,這種藥品的功效可能減低,你的哮喘說不定會更嚴重。
  • 防止哮喘藥物通常裝在褐色、紅色或橙色吸入器。此類藥物有控制呼吸道腫脹作用、消除呼吸道過敏和減低嚴重發作的風險。此類藥物需要一段時間才可增強藥效,所以即使你覺得很好,每天都要使用,通常在早上和晚間時間。防止藥物含有一種類固醇。重要的是要知道這與運動員使用以增加體力的促合成類固醇是不同的。

如果需要的話,可用其他藥物補充減輕症狀及防止哮喘吸入器,例如預防性藥片和長效的減輕藥物以及混合吸入器(通常紅和白色或紫色)。如想知道有關其他的藥物,不妨向你的醫生或哮喘症護士問詢。 

Q.

How is asthma treated?

A.

There are some excellent treatments available to help you to control your asthma. The most effective way of taking most asthma treatments is to inhale the medicine so it gets straight into your lungs. There are many different inhalers available and it is important that you use an inhaler that you are comfortable with and can use properly. Your doctor or asthma nurse will advise you on the most appropriate inhaler for you and should show you how to use it correctly.

There are two main types of asthma medicine which are equally important but do different things. They are called relievers and preventers.

  • Reliever inhalers are usually blue and you take them when you have symptoms (like wheeze or cough). They work quickly by relaxing the muscles surrounding the narrowed airways making it easier to breathe. Reliever inhalers are essential in treating asthma attacks. If you need to use your reliever inhaler 3–4 times a week, you should go back to your doctor or nurse and have your asthma reviewed so that you can keep it under control. If you continue to need a lot of reliever medicine over a long time there is a risk that it will become less effective in you and your asthma may worsen.
  • Preventer inhalers usually come in brown, red or orange. They work by controlling the swelling and inflammation in the airways, stopping them from being so sensitive and reducing the risk of severe attacks. The effect of preventer inhalers builds up over a period of time and they need to be taken every day, usually morning and evening, even when you are feeling well. Preventers contain a steroid medicine. It is important to understand that the steroids contained in preventer medicines are not the same as anabolic steroids used by athletes to improve their performance.

There are other types of medicine that can be added to your reliever and preventer inhaler if needed, such as preventer tablets, long-acting relievers and combination inhalers (usually red and white or purple). For information about other medicines speak to your doctor or asthma nurse.  

使用哮喘藥品中的類固醇對我安全嗎? Are the steroids in asthma medicines safe for me to take?

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使用哮喘藥品中的類固醇對我安全嗎?

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這是安全的,事實上如果你從開方獲配給防止哮喘吸入器,而且適當地使用,這會大大地減少你哮喘發作的可能性。以下是一些你要記著的事宜:

  • 用以醫治哮喘的類固醇是皮質類固醇 –  一種人體自然產生類固醇的複製品。
  • 這些類固醇與增強體質者和運動員所使用的促合成類固醇完全不同。
  • 吸用類固醇直接進入呼吸道,而被身體其他部分吸收的分量極少。
  • 你的醫生會給你開最低分量的藥。
  • 吸入器有噴霧(氣霧)和乾粉末的形式。如果你使用氣霧吸入器,最佳使用方法是用一個分隔物(spacer)。分隔物是塑料或金屬製造的容器,一邊是吹口,另一邊是接合氣霧吸入器的小孔。
  • 為避免副作用,你應使用分隔物,又用了吸入器之後應嗽口。
  • 兒童受接治療,每隔六個月應再檢查一次。
  • 兒童用防止哮喘藥,應使用分隔物。

有時候,如果你的哮喘症狀成為嚴重,你的醫生可能給你在一段短時間服用類固醇藥片。此類藥物很快起作用,且有特效,幫助舒緩你發炎的呼吸道。短期服用的藥片,可由3至14天,這不會引起任何長久的副作用。類固醇藥片會降低人體抵抗水痘的能力,因此如果你服用此類藥片,且與水痘接觸,應告訴你的醫生。使用類固醇藥片的兒童,應密切加以注意。

 

Q.

Are the steroids in asthma medicines safe for me to take?

A.

Yes, in fact if you are prescribed a preventer inhaler and use it properly this will greatly reduce your chance of an asthma attack.  However there are some points to remember:

  • The steroids used to treat asthma are corticosteroids – a copy of the steroids produced naturally in your body.
  • They are completely different from the anabolic steroids used by bodybuilders and athletes.
  • Inhaled steroids go straight down to the airways, so very little is absorbed into the rest of the body.
  • Your doctor should prescribe the lowest possible dose.
  • Inhalers can be in spray form (aerosol) or dry powder form. If you have an aerosol inhaler, using a spacer device with your inhaler is the best way to take your medicine. A spacer is a large plastic or metal container, with a mouthpiece at one end and a hole for the aerosol inhaler at the other.
  • To avoid side effects you should use a spacer device and rinse your mouth after using your inhaler.
  • Children’s treatment should be reviewed at least every 6 months.
  • All children should use a spacer for their preventer inhaler.

Occasionally, if your asthma symptoms become severe, your doctor may give you a short course of steroid tablets. They work quickly and powerfully to help to calm your inflamed airways. Short courses of tablets, anything from 3–14 days, will not give any long-term side effects. Steroid tablets can lower the body's resistance to chickenpox, so you should contact your doctor if you are taking steroid tablets and come into contact with chickenpox. Children using steroid tablets should be monitored closely.

何故我不能夠服用藥片控制哮喘? Why can’t I take tablets to control my asthma?

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何故我不能夠服用藥片控制哮喘?

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使用吸入器是接受醫治哮喘的最收效方法,這樣可直接將藥物吸入肺臟內。大多數防止哮喘藥物含有類固醇,藉用吸入器可使用很低量的類固醇。

由於吸用的藥物直接進入呼吸道,這正是需要藥物之處,被身體其他部分吸收的藥物分量極少

如果服用藥片的類固醇,則劑量頗高,而除了你的肺臟,大部分類固醇被身體其他部分吸收。長期使用藥片類固醇(整年或整月)有引起嚴重副作用的可能,包括骨質疏鬆症、易受瘀傷、糖尿病、白内障、飢餓感覺增加、胃灼熱及消化不良。你可能感到抑鬱、心情不穩或臉呈圓形。

有少數了需要天天服用類固醇藥片,連同使用其他的吸入器。

記著:

  • 偶然在短時間使用藥片使用(3至14天)對你不可能引起長期的副作用。
  • 如果你不依照你醫生或哮喘症護士的指示使用藥物次數,則你更有可能需要服用類固醇藥片。
  • 如果你在一年期間需要在多於一或兩段短時間服用藥片,你應接受醫生或哮喘症護士再檢查你的哮喘。

 

Q.

Why can’t I take tablets to control my asthma?

A.

The most effective way of taking most asthma treatments is to inhale the medicine by using your inhaler so it gets straight into your lungs. Most preventer treatments contain steroids and taking them by inhaler means that a much lower dose of the steroid can be used.

Because the inhaled medicine goes straight down to the airways where it is needed, very little is absorbed into the rest of the body.

When steroids are taken in tablet form the dose is much higher and most of it will be absorbed into the rest of the body, not just your lungs. Using steroid tablets regularly or for long periods of time (months or years) can have serious side effects including brittle bones (osteoporosis), bruising easily, diabetes, cataracts, increased hunger, heartburn and indigestion. They may make you feel depressed, or have mood swings or develop a fattened face.

A small number of people need daily steroid tablets as well as their other inhalers.

Remember:

  • occasional short courses of tablets (anything from 3–14 days) are very unlikely to give you any long-term side effects
  • if you do not take your inhaler as often as your doctor or asthma nurse has prescribed you will be more likely to need steroid tablets
  • if you find you need more than one or two short courses of tablets a year you should have an asthma review with your doctor or asthma nurse.
幫助你控制哮喘 Helping you to control your asthma

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幫助你控制哮喘

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你的醫生或哮喘護士應與你商量有關控制你症狀的最佳方法,並給予你一份使用哮喘藥物的例表,說明當你的病症變為嚴重應怎樣處理(有時這稱為「個人哮喘行動計劃」。如果因某原因這項計劃不適合於你,應回去見你的醫生。  

此外你也應每年接受再檢查哮喘一次,即使你控制你的症狀得很好,或者你時常難控制你的症狀。再檢查哮喘的約見是讓你和你的醫生或哮喘護士談論有關你能控制你症狀的最佳方法。他們也應檢查你是否正確地使用你的吸入器。在再檢查哮喘的約見,你不妨索取一張哮喘藥卡和怎樣控制你哮喘病的書面記錄(個人哮喘行動計劃)。

Q.

Helping you to control your asthma

A.

Your doctor or asthma nurse should discuss with you the best way you can control your symptoms and should give you a written record of your asthma medicines and what to do if your symptoms get worse (sometimes called a Personal Asthma Action Plan). If this plan does not suit you for any reason, go back to your doctor.   

You should also have an asthma review every year, even if your symptoms are well controlled or more often if your symptoms are difficult to control.  An asthma review is an appointment where you and your doctor or asthma nurse talk about ways you can control your symptoms better. They should also check that you are taking your inhaler correctly.  At your asthma review, ask for an asthma medicine card and a written record of how to control your asthma (Personal Asthma Action Plan).

我怎樣知道我的病症變為嚴重? How do I know if my asthma is getting worse?

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我怎樣知道我的病症變為嚴重?

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你或許:

  • 越來越需要更多減輕藥物的醫治
  • 晚間醒來咳嗽、喘息、呼吸短促或胸悶
  • 因哮喘需要請假
  • 覺得你不能夠保持活動或運動的常有程度

以上任何一種情形顯示你的哮喘病不受控,應去見你的醫生或哮喘症護士,使得你的哮喘再受控制。

Q.

How do I know if my asthma is getting worse?

A.

You may be:

  • needing more and more reliever treatment
  • waking at night with coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath or a tight chest
  • having to take time off school/college/work because of your asthma
  • feeling that you cannot keep up with your normal level of activity or exercise.

Any of these show that your asthma is not controlled and you should see your doctor or asthma nurse to get your asthma back under control.

如果哮喘發作該怎樣做 What you must do during an asthma attack

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如果哮喘發作該怎樣做

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  • 吸入減輕吸入器(通常藍色)嘖劑兩次
  • 坐起,解鬆緊身的衣物
  • 如果發作之後沒有即時好轉,繼續在五分鐘內或直到好轉過來,每隔一分鐘使用減輕吸入器吸入嘖劑一次
  • 如果你的情況在五分鐘內沒有好轉過來 – 或者你覺得疑慮 – 打999或緊急召喚醫生
  • 繼續每一分鐘吸入減輕嘖劑一次,直到醫療人員到臨

即使你覺得已好轉過來,你應在兩天之內去看醫生。

Q.

What you must do during an asthma attack

A.

  • Take two puffs of your reliever (usually blue) inhaler.
  • Sit up and loosen tight clothing.
  • If no immediate improvement during an attack, continue to take one puff of reliever inhaler every minute for five minutes or until symptoms improve.
  • If your symptoms do not improve in five minutes – or if you are in doubt - call 999 or a doctor urgently.
  • Continue to take one puff of your reliever inhaler every minute until help arrives.

Even if you feel better you should see your doctor within 2 days.

補充療法療會幫助我控制哮喘嗎? Will complementary therapies help me to control my asthma?

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補充療法療會幫助我控制哮喘嗎?

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許多患哮喘的人都有意嘗試接受不用開方藥物的治療以助控制所患的哮喘。這些常稱為補充治療和療法,包括瑜珈、針灸、同種療法,催眠狀態, Buteyko 呼吸法和其他的呼吸技術。

由於對補充療法迄今未進行如開方藥物那麼深入的研究,對這種治療的收效性或引起什麼傷害所知尚淺。

一些患哮喘的人覺得某種補充療法和治療有助於減輕情緒上的緊張,這種緊張可能成為哮喘的激發物。其他人則減少出現的哮喘症狀,例如氣喘吁吁。重要的是要記著,這些症狀或許有了好轉,但潛在的哮喘症依然存在。

英國哮喘症協會建議任何有意想嘗試補充療法或治療的人首先應與他們的醫生或哮喘護士商量。補充療法應一定與開方治療一起使用。

如果你減少或停止使用你常用的哮喘藥,你的哮喘症狀可能變為嚴重。

Q.

Will complementary therapies help me to control my asthma?

A.

Many people with asthma are interested in trying treatments and therapies that do not use prescribed medicines to help them control their asthma. These are often called complementary therapies. They include yoga, acupuncture, homeopathy, hypnosis, Buteyko and other breathing techniques.

As complementary therapies have not been studied as much as prescription medicines, less is known about how effective they are or what harmful effects they may have.

Some people with asthma find that some complementary therapies and treatments help to relieve stress which can be a trigger for asthma. Others have been shown to help reduce asthma symptoms, such as breathlessness. It is important to remember that while symptoms may improve the underlying asthma remains.

Asthma UK recommends that anyone who would like to try a complementary therapy or treatment should speak to their doctor or asthma nurse first. Complementary therapies should always be used alongside any prescribed treatment.

It could worsen your asthma symptoms if you reduce or stop taking your regular asthma medicine.

我患哮喘,且正在懷孕,我的嬰兒是否也患哮喘? I have asthma and I am pregnant, will my baby have asthma too?

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我患哮喘,且正在懷孕,我的嬰兒是否也患哮喘?

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這是許多患哮喘婦女所關心的一項主要問題。如其他的過敏病症,例如花粉症和濕疹,哮喘症常與家庭有密切關係。研究人員正在致力找出哪些環境因素也帶來影響。 

一些但非全部的研究顯示,如果出生嬰兒在最初幾個月獲以母乳餵養,可能減低患過敏病症,包括哮喘。

在懷孕期抽煙的母親,其孩子更有可能在早年患上哮喘和喘息。你能做到一項重要的事以減低孩子患哮喘的可能性,就是遠離香煙煙霧的地方。

你使用的哮喘藥對你嬰兒不會引起傷害 - 事實上,如果你的哮喘受控制, 這會令你的嬰兒得益,因此重要的是你要繼續使用你的哮喘藥品。如果你關心你的哮喘病,不妨跟你的醫生、護士或助産士交談。

如果你正在懷孕,應接受你的醫生或哮喘症護士給以複查你的哮喘。

Q.

I have asthma and I am pregnant, will my baby have asthma too?

A.

This is one of the main concerns of many women with asthma. Like other allergic conditions, such as hay fever and eczema, asthma often runs in the family. Researchers are trying to show which factors in the environment also play a part. 

Some, but not all, studies have shown that breast-feeding in the first few months of life may reduce the chance of your baby developing allergic conditions, including asthma.

Mothers who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to have children that develop asthma and wheezing in their early years. The most important thing you can do to reduce a baby’s chance of asthma is to avoid cigarette smoke.

Your asthma medicines won't harm your baby - in fact, your baby will do best if your asthma is under control, so it is important to continue with your asthma medicine.
If you are concerned about your asthma, speak to your doctor, nurse or midwife.

You should have your asthma reviewed by your doctor or asthma nurse if you are pregnant.

我可從何處得到更多訊息? Where can I go to get more information?

.

我可從何處得到更多訊息?

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如欲得到有關哮喘病的保密和獨立忠告,打電話給英國哮喘忠告專線,與我們的哮喘症專門護士交談。

我們的傳譯服務可以回答英國居民的來電查詢,包括以一百種以上的語言。接線生會問打電話者說用哪一種語言,然後接駁語言專線服務,讓他們透過傳譯員可跟一名哮喘症專門護士交談。

英國哮喘忠告專線(Asthma UK Adviceline)
0800 121 62 44

周一至周五,上午9時至下午5時
(以固定座機打這個號碼毋需付費)

 

Q.

Where can I go to get more information?

A.

For free confidential and independent advice about asthma, phone the Asthma UK Adviceline to speak to our asthma nurse specialists.

An interpreting service is available to answer enquiries (from UK residents) in more than 100 languages. Callers are asked which language they need, and are connected with the Language Line Service so that they can continue their conversation with an asthma nurse specialist through an interpreter.

Asthma UK Adviceline
0800 121 62 44

9am to 5pm, Monday to Friday
(Calls are free from BT landlines)