The coronavirus outbreak is a rapidly developing situation and the most up-to-date information for people in the UK can be found on the NHS website.
On this page
Your risk from COVID-19 if you have asthma
How to reduce the risk of catching COVID-19
Reducing your risk of serious illness if you catch COVID-19
Making decisions about what to do
How can I protect myself if I can’t work from home?
If you’re feeling anxious about COVID-19
This page helps you understand how you can reduce your risk of catching or becoming seriously ill with COVID-19.
You should always follow the government guidance for your area, to make sure you are taking sensible steps to reduce the risk of getting or spreading coronavirus.
Public Health England has identified the main factors that increase the risk of catching and becoming seriously ill with coronavirus as:
- being older
- your job
- where you live
- being a man
- being obese (with a BMI over 30)
- your ethnic background
- being born outside of the UK or Ireland
- having an underlying health condition (including asthma)
- a weakened immune system.
However, Public Health England may update this guidance if the scientific advice or spread of coronavirus changes.
Many of these are connected and you may be at higher risk if you have more than one of these risk factors. Age is by far the biggest risk factor in relation to becoming seriously ill with coronavirus, with those aged 80 and older at a much greater risk. For advice and more information on coronavirus and older people, visit Age UK’s coronavirus guidance.
The highest rates of COVID-19 have been seen in people from Black ethnic groups, with the lowest diagnosis rates in people from White ethnic groups.
When comparing survival rates among people who have had COVID-19, people of Bangladeshi ethnicity have had around twice the risk of dying compared to people of White British ethnicity. This was after accounting for the effects of age, sex, deprivation and where people live.
People from the following ethnicities were also found to be at greater risk of dying from COVID-19, compared with people of White British ethnicity:
- Asian, including people of Chinese, Indian and Pakistani origin
- Black, including people of Caribbean and African origin
There isn’t any evidence to suggest that having asthma makes you more likely to catch coronavirus. In terms of serious illness from coronavirus, people with severe asthma and asthma that is not well controlled may be at higher risk. It is also not known what the effects of different types of asthma treatments and different types of asthma may have in relation to your risk. This is why it's still very important to manage your condition, particularly if you have severe asthma. This includes taking your preventer medicines as prescribed and following your asthma action plan.
What is clear is that everyone is different, and your own level of risk is affected by many different interacting factors. This is why it’s hard to give blanket information about the level of risk from having asthma. Your asthma may play a part in your level of risk from coronavirus, but your risk is also affected by lots of other things too.
Find out how many cases are in your area
If lots of people in your area are infected with coronavirus, it’s more likely that you will be exposed to the virus. If there are low levels of infection in your area, the risk will be lower. Find official coronavirus statistics for your area.
The other thing to consider is how fast the virus is spreading or reducing in your area. The main measure for this is the ‘R’ number.
If the R number is more than 1, it means the epidemic is growing. If the R number is less then 1, the epidemic is declining.
Find out the current R number in the UK, as well as separate ones for England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
You should do all you can to reduce the risk of catching or spreading coronavirus. We all need to do our part to stop the spread of the virus and help protect ourselves and others.
There are lots of ways you can stay safe, including:
- keeping your distance from anyone outside your household
- washing your hands often, using soap and warm water, or hand sanitiser
- avoiding crowded places and not meeting up with large groups of people – either indoors our outdoors
- wearing a face covering, if you can wear one (mainly to help you protect others).
Following this advice is especially important if you are vulnerable.
Restrictions and advice on meeting people is different across the 4 UK nations:
It’s important that you follow local guidance for where you live or work. This will help to keep you and others safe.
Coronavirus is a respiratory infection. If you smoke, you have an increased risk of contracting a respiratory infection and of having worse symptoms. This means that if you catch coronavirus, your symptoms may be worse than those of a non-smoker.
Smokers also touch their mouth and face more, which increases the risk of transmitting the virus from hand to mouth.
It’s important that if you smoke, you stop as soon as possible. As well as lowering your risk from coronavirus, your breathing becomes easier within days of stopping smoking. Advice on how to stop smoking.
Wear a face mask or face covering
Most people with asthma, even if it’s severe, can manage to wear a face mask or covering for a short period of time, and shouldn't worry if they need to wear one. Wearing a mask does not reduce a person’s oxygen supply or cause a build-up of carbon dioxide.
There isn’t a blanket rule about face covering exemptions for everyone with asthma. But if you find it impossible to wear a face covering for health reasons, you don’t have to wear one. An example of this might be if a mask makes you too breathless.
We have more information and advice on wearing a face covering if you have asthma, including an exemption card if you can't wear one.
You should still be getting your usual asthma care at this time, but some elements might look a bit different.
If you are having an asthma attack, this is an emergency. You must follow the steps on your action plan and get your usual emergency care, including going to A&E or calling 999 if you need to.
Care from your GP
If you have asthma, your risk of becoming seriously ill with coronavirus may be higher, particularly if you have severe asthma or your asthma is not well controlled.
This means it’s really important to take all your preventer medications as prescribed to keep your asthma controlled. Speak to your GP or asthma nurse if you are getting asthma symptoms 3 or more times a week.
Follow these 4 asthma management steps to help you keep well:
1. Keep taking your preventer inhaler every day, as prescribed.
This helps cut your risk of an asthma attack being triggered by any respiratory virus, including coronavirus.
2. Carry your reliever inhaler with your everywhere.
It is important to carry this with you everywhere, in case your asthma symptoms start flaring up.
3. Follow your asthma action plan.
This helps you recognise and manage your asthma symptoms when they start. If you don’t have an asthma action plan, or your plan is out of date, it’s important you get one. How to get an asthma action plan.
4. Start a peak flow diary, if you have a peak flow meter.
If you don’t have a peak flow meter, think about getting one from your GP or pharmacist. It’s a good way of tracking your asthma and helping to tell the difference between asthma symptoms and COVID-19 symptoms.
We know that right now you may be making some difficult decisions and there is no single answer that will be right for everyone.
You may be thinking about whether to:
- visit family or friends
- go out for dinner
- use public transport
- go back into your workplace.
Part of deciding whether or not to do something is down to your attitude to risk. It might be helpful to think about how much you’d benefit from going somewhere and how much you could potentially be exposed to coronavirus.
You might find it useful to talk to friends, family or a health care professional about your individual situation, taking into account your asthma.
The Scottish government has produced a quick guide to help you understand what sorts of activities are safer than others, which you may find useful. Generally, outdoor activities – such as seeing friends outside, or sitting outside at a café or restaurant – should be lower risk than indoor activities.
If you are thinking about going on holiday, it’s important to be mindful of your condition and that there are restrictions across the UK. These may be different depending on what part of the UK you are in or travelling to.
If you have asthma, you should choose and plan your trip carefully, to make sure you stay well and enjoy your time away.
It’s ok to say no
As lockdown rules ease, it can be difficult to know what’s safe to do, especially if you have asthma. You may not feel comfortable going to certain events or social occasions. It’s reasonable to say no or to ask what the arrangements are, to make you feel more comfortable.
You could ask:
How many people will be there?
Will there be many people I don’t usually meet?
How big is the space?
What are the bathroom arrangements?
If you don’t feel comfortable going somewhere, then don’t feel pressured. If you do decide to go, make sure you follow government guidance to reduce your risk from coronavirus.
Think of how you’re getting to and from work
Walking or cycling are the safest ways to travel. If you do have to use public transport, try to avoid peak times. You could speak to your employer about changing your working hours or shift pattern so that you can travel at quieter times of the day.
It’s also worth remembering that lots of train stations and other transport hubs provide hand sanitiser, although try to carry some on you, if you can.
If you’re thinking about driving to work, it’s worth thinking about the risks - for example, the roads will be busier. There’s also good evidence that when sitting in congested traffic, you are exposed to more pollution inside your car than you would be outside.
Reduce the number of people you spend time with regularly
Your employer can support with this by:
- changing shift patterns and rotas so that you’re with the same people each time
- working in smaller teams.
Follow the advice at your workplace
Each workplace has its own rules, so make sure to follow them. You should only be going back to work if your workplace is COVID-secure. Find out what a COVID-secure workplace looks like.
The coronavirus outbreak is difficult for everyone – your life may have been affected a little, or it may have been affected a lot. Over the last few months, you may have felt worried, lonely, stressed, anxious or bored.
Here are some suggestions that might help your health and wellbeing:
Try to keep active
Do whatever physical activity you can manage. This might be a walk or run around your local area, or some yoga or an exercise video at home. Even if you aren’t able to do much exercise, try to break up the time you spend sitting down by walking around at home.
Watch what you eat and drink
Eat healthy meals, drink enough water, and try not to increase how much alcohol you drink.
It’s really important to keep in touch with friends and family. You can send texts or emails, call people on the phone or use video chat to stay in touch with people who are important to you.
Even if you're not in the shielding group, if you meet certain criteria you can access support from the NHS volunteer responders. They can do things like helping you with shopping, getting prescriptions or just checking in to see how you are doing.
You can request this support online or by calling 0808 196 3646 if:
- you're 70 or older with an underlying health condition
- you have moderate to severe asthma
- you're pregnant
- you're registered disabled
- you have certain other medical conditions
- you're newly socially vulnerable because of coronavirus.
You can find the full list of criteria on the NHS volunteer responders website.
Looking after your mental health
It’s important to look after your mental health right now, whether you’ve had coronavirus or not. Here are a few organisations that can help you do that:
Last updated on: Wednesday 16 September